Antiquity Sites

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Saggafa
Saggafa is located in the south-east of the Awadi Township in the heart of Arabia, about 280 km west of Riyadh. It is an area surrounded by small hills, edges of steep valleys and low escarpments. Recent archaeological excavations have bared many stone tools and flakes, indicating the remains of a settlement dating back to the period between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic ages.
 
Jabal Baidatain
Jabal Baidatain is a small hill-complex located 13 kilometers south-west of Awadi. At a site near the base of the hill, some traces of ancient settlements were discovered in the form of number of animals’ drawings and Thamudic inscriptions on the rock surfaces.
 
Jabal Baraga
It is located 70 km to the north of Al Bajadia. On this site remains of ancient tombs and settlements dating back to 2000 years were found. Another interesting find is the remains of stone buildings that resemble some service centers; the exact purpose of these buildings is a mystery.
 
Jabal Qanoofah
It is an archeological site near a hill located at a distance of 70 km from Awadi. A cave found here in the face of the hill presents well preserved ancient inscriptions and drawings.
 
Thumamah Archeological Site
This archeological site is part of the Al-A’arid area in the Najd region in the Central Province. Through a survey conducted in 1402H/1981 by a team of archaeologists it was found that this site has witnessed a superior civilization during the Neolithic period (8000 years ago). The houses in Thumamah settlement are located on the banks of valleys and slopes. A large group of stone tools made of pridotite (dark coarse-grained volcanic rock consisting mainly of olivine) were excavated here. This site exhibits considerable industrial skills of its primitive population.
 
Kahaf Burmah
This cave is located 66 km north-east of Riyadh. The interface shows many cave paintings and rock carvings of intricate designs. Archeologists from SCTA have reproduced about 15 of these rock designs. Some of these are as old as 2400 years from now.
 
Al Bajadiyah Site
It is located at a distance of 68 miles (112 km) west of Awadi. Ruins of an old dilapidated settlement and a number of inscriptions and some of the pottery shreds were traced. Also found in some parts of the site, bits of iron ore indicating to the presence of iron mines near the site.
 
Qaryat Al Faw / Qaryat Al Fau
Qaryat al-Fāw also known as Qaryat al-fau is located in corridor through the Tuwaiq Mountains, where it intersects with Wadi-al–Dawasir, overlooking the northwestern edge of the Empty Quarter. It is about 700 km southwest of Riyadh. Qaryat al-fau is classified as one of the most important ancient cities of the pre-Islam in Saudi Arabia. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Kinda of the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD, one of the very ancient Arab kingdoms in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula. It also intersects the ancient trade route Najran–Jerhae at a strategic point.
The discovery of Qaryat Al Faw is the most important archaeological finds both at the local and international levels, as it embodies the example of Arab cities that existed before Islam with all its components – houses, wells, roads, market places, temples, graves, still intact.
 
Al-Aflaj
It is a village located 300 km from Riyadh on a site south-west of Najd plateau, sandwiched between Jebel Tuwaiq and a narrow escarpment that cuts through the Nejd plateau in central Arabia. The most important antiquity find here is Al-Eiwoon site, which is about 18 km from Lilla. It contains remains of an ancient settlement in the form of a large quantity of pieces of pottery, remains of ancient tombs and irrigation channels dating back to the early Hellenistic era.
 
Al-Hani Archeological Site
Located in the city of Riyadh on the south side on the banks of Wadi Hanifa, it is an ancient settlement dating back to the pre-Islamic period spread on an area of 1000 by 500 meters. On the surface of the site are found remains of houses, fences, wells, fractured pottery and some small ancient dams. The Department of Antiquities and Museums in the Ministry of Education conducted an archaeological excavation in 1418 H/1997 which resulted in discoveries of various housing units and some archaeological finds.

Caravan Road (Ab Al-Gad)
Located in the heart of Tuwaik escarpment range south of the Gusoor Almoqbil town is a 4 km long camel caravan route that runs through the mountains of Tuwaik from the bottom to the top to a height of 969 meters, paved with stones and rocks. It dates back to the pre-Islamic era.
 
Wadi Fatimah
It starts from the mountain of northern Arabian Shield in the north of Makkah, and extends to the south-west towards the Tihama coastal plain along the Red Sea coast. Many archeological sites are recorded here that belong to the Ashuwili age. Some excavations have revealed stone tools such as machetes and hand axe, spades etc. Also found a number of secondary sites in the province of Jeddah along the valley dating back to Al Mustiri Age (80000–35000 years).
 
Jabal Al-Rediah
On this site, at a distance of about 20 km north of Jeddah, some rock carvings representing human figures were fund that are very clear and well preserved on the surface of the hill at a height of about 6 meters from the ground.
 
Jabal Al-A'arfa
This site is located 35 km north-east of Taif. It is one of the largest sites that contain rock carvings of goats, deer, cows and other animal statues dating back to the second millennium BC. This site also contains some Thamudic and Kofi patterns as well.
 
Shuaiba Port
It is located 50 km south of Jeddah. Al-Kalbi, the Arab historian says that Al-Shaibah was the main port in the Arabian Peninsula in pre-Islamic era. It was Caliph Osman ibn Affan who established the current port in Jeddah in 26H/616 AD to receive the convoys of pilgrims.
 
Mina Al-Sarin
It is located 50 kilometers south of Al Laith. This seaport was abandoned and sand buried most of its effects over a long period, with abundant historical monuments, literature, pottery, glass, industrial remains dating back to the third century AH (9th century CE). All of this was excavated recently.
 
Al-Ma'adan Village
It is located in the southern part of the province of Taif. It was famous for its stone industry. Confirming to this, various multi-use stone vessels of the past, such as censors, soap boxes were found on the site.
 
Souq Okaz
This was the largest market for pre-Islamic Arabs, which was established in the early days of Islam, and held for the purposes of literary, commercial, political and social activities. The market is located outside the city of Taif to the north-east of the Riyadh-Makkah highway.
 
Thalbah Dam
This dam is located on a narrow valley, about seven kilometers from Taif. The dam was built of square cut stones arranged in the form of two parallel walls.
 
Sadd Samlagi
This is the tallest dam in the Lee valley on the outskirts of Taif located at a distance of 35 km to the south of the city. It is likely that the old dam was built in the period before Islam. On some of its rock surfaces are found early Kofi writings, listing many of the benefits of the dam. This is a very large dam with prodigious length of more than 200 meters and width 10 meter across, which demonstrates the architectural and construction skills of the ancient Arabian tribes.
 
Sesid Dam
It is located in the south-east of Taif in the area of natural reserve. Its construction differs from other dams being built with large horizontal and rectangular stone blocks installed in the solid walls of the dam that are wide and steady. This dam is famous for having been built during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan. Near the dam there are writings and inscriptions dating back to 58H (677-678 AD).
 
Al-Lasab Dam
It was built on a valley east of Jeddah. The walls are wide, strong and built at an altitude in the middle of 5 meters wide stream in the valley. There are the remains of some abandoned houses around the dam, where the remains of early Islamic pottery were found. In addition to the dam mentioned above, there are also 34 other ancient dams in the region of Taif
 
Al Baraka Kharaba
It is one of the oldest ponds located on the famous Darb Zubaida, the old pilgrimage route. It is located 95 km to the north-east of Taif, and consists of two reservoirs, one circular and the other rectangular in shape. The channel carries water to these ponds.

Aqeeq Pond
It is a very large and square-shaped pond, a principle stop on the ancient pilgrimage route, Darb Zubaidah. The station is located 45 km to the north-east of Daribbah site in the Aqeeq valley on its western slopes. There are many houses, castles, Palaces, and farms in Al Aqeeq valley since the epoch of companions which are well protected against eastern floods. On the east side of the valley there are also a number of ancient ponds, canals and some building structures.
 
Um Al-Dameeran
It is located at a distance of about 1.5 km north-west of a modern village ‘Saale’, and 45 km to the north-east of Makkah, above the sloping plateau to the north-east of Wadi Al Yemnia and south-west of Wadi Shamia. Um Al-Dameeran is one of the main stations for pilgrims in Darab Zubaydah Pathway. The station boasts two ponds, surface canals, underground canals, buildings and two castles.
 
Al-Hajar "Madain Saleh"
Madain Saleh is located 22 km north-east of Al-Ula. Al Hajr was its old name since ancient times. Its historical fame rests as a signatory to the ancient trade route that connects southern Arabian Peninsula and the Levant in the north. Nabutian lived in this place and took this as their southern capital for the Nabutian state when they imposed their influence on the north-west of the Arabian Peninsula. Petra was their Northern capital. Madain Saleh is characterized by rock tombs with decorated interfaces carved in sand hills. Nabateans abandoned this place when new trade route was discovered through the Red Sea by the Romans. The site regained its importance in the Islamic era as an important pilgrimage route from Syria. This area is known as Madain Saleh (Saleh's Towns) – so named by an Andalusia traveler in 737H/1336AD.

Al-Kheraibah
It is an archeological area located within Madain Saleh. Thomedians lived in this area and then followed by the Nabateans. Various isolated mud-walls with stone foundations, as well as a large collection of beads and pots were found in this area. Stone basins for watering sheep and keeping waterfowls were available. Some small clay figurines in human forms were also found. Copious material made of wood, various metals and ivory, as well as ancient coins and various kinds of potteries were found.
 
Islamic Mabiat Site
Also known as Garah, a site dating back to the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, it is one of the most important early Islamic sites in the north Arabia. Excavations made in 1984 have indicated that a large Muslim city existed here. The survey revealed rich components of archaeological and cultural value. Narrow streets with shops on both side and houses decorated with wooden doors and windows and other graffiti written in fresco style, reminiscent of the famous Samarra culture were discovered. Al Magdasi described in the 4th century AH Garah as the second largest city after Makkah. Excavations in 1985 have revealed remains of a mosque believed to be an Eid Mosque (Festival Mosque). Besides this, remains of the city wall and complete housing units were found. It was a thriving city in the 3rd and 5th Hejiri centuries but it declined by the 6th Hejiri century (12th century CE).
 
Khaif Al-Zahra Site
It was an important settlement of the old Dydania state. Situated about 1 km north of Khraybe it is surrounded by a stone wall on all sides. It was definitely an agricultural rural settlement near the end of the Wadi Al Ama'atidal that gave Al-Khraybe lush surroundings and views. This site provided new dimension to archaeological research for the Dydania state, which flourished during the first millennium B.C. It is located in the north of Al-Ulla (Khraybe in the old Diydan). The site and surrounding lands reflect the development that occurred in the field of agriculture and irrigation and also language and civilizations as revealed in the inscriptions found. The remnants of surrounding walls disclosed the importance the city had as a leading defense of the capital of the Khraybe – the capital of Dydania State.

Taroot Island
It is an Island located in the Arabian Gulf near Al-Qatif. It is linked by a natural bridge – 10 to 20 meters wide and four kilometer long. The historic Taroot town is located in the center of the island and it has important implications, for in the island are found some antiquities dating back to the era of the first strains of Mesopotamia (i.e., before a period in 4000 and 5000 years). Some other discoveries are related to contemporary Elam of Persian civilization, the Mohnjaddaro and the Indus valley Civilizations, and the Fire Civilization that once dominated the southern areas of the Arabian Gulf.
 
Ein Ganas
Ein Ganas is located near Al-Murah village in Al-Ahsa. It was founded in the Slave era. It contains multi-storied residential units belong to Neolithic period, with a stress on the slave culture that had evolved here and spread north to Mesopotamia. Sufficient evidence of a thriving slave culture at Dussariyah area in the south of Jubail city, at Abukhamis and on the neighboring islands such as Maslameyah Island and Jana Island is available. By the end of the slaves era (before 5550 years), the civilized era began in the Mesopotamia and commercial and cultural contacts between the centers of civilization around the Arabian Gulf and the Fire area, south of the Arabian Gulf thrived.
 
Thajj Archeological Site
Thajj is located about 80 km to the west of Jubail Industrial City. Thajj today is a small village on the border of Sabkha, known as Thajj Sabkha. An archaeological research was conducted by the Danish Mission in the year 1388H/1968 and the other conducted by the Antiquities & Museums Agency at the Ministry of Education later during 1403 – 1404H/1982-83, revealed existence of a full-fledged city surrounded by a huge external wall built with stones. The length of this wall was 900 meters. There is a central mound where remains of foundation-walls and houses are clearly visible. Pottery and glass pieces as well as adornment items were also discovered. The construction of the city dates back to the Hellenistic period, which is known as the Salugi period. The history of the area is referred to the early 3rd century B.C/9th century AD.

Ibrahim Palace
It is located in the town of Hofuf and attributed to the Governor Ibrahim bin Afissan, Amir of Al-Ahsa during the time of Imam Saud Al Kabeer, who lived in this palace. The construction history of the palace is referred to the year 974H/1577 AD as being built in phases until the year 1000H/1591AD. The total area of the palace is 16,500 m2. The construction method of this palace is mingled both the military and religious style. Inside this palace is a mosque called Al-Quba Mosque which has a single dome resting on top of the entire building. This dome is of unique style in Saudi Arabia, not known before.

Huzam Palace
It is located in Hofuf town and it is constructed in the year 1220H /1805G in the time of Imam Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz Al kabeer. Its total area is 12,000 m2. The military style dominates the construction method of this palace for the place was mostly a military barrack.
 
Al Ogair Seaport
Al Ogair is the main seaport in Al Ahsa on the east coast of Saudi Arabia. It is an archaeological site that connects with many adjacent archaeological sites in the area. There are old buildings such as the Governorate center, Customs building and the Mosque built in the beginning of the reign of King Abdul-Aziz. It is believed to be an old market that dates back to pre-Islamic times. This market is associated with Souk Al Meshir and Souk Hajr. But this once buzzing market is now abandoned and forlorn. Al Ogair port has seen the launch of Islamic armies that conquered Persia, India and reaching the borders of China.
 
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Aldoor Archeological Site
It is located in the south-eastern part of Al Ahsa, in the form of a buried ancient mound. The site contains foundations of dilapidated buildings. Remains of many buildings were found in the center of the site; most likely it was a market place. A dilapidated ancient mosque was found in front of the market, indicating that this is an old Islamic village. Presently the place is known as Aldoor. It dates back to 9th–10th century Hijri/15th -16th century CE.
 
Joatha Mosque
Joatha mosque is located about 20 km north-east of Hofuf and about 5 km north of the Kallabah village. This mosque is built during the early Islamic period, around 2nd century Hijira, which makes it 1200 years old Islamic structure.
 
The Town of Garash
Garash is located 15 kilometers to the south of Khamis Meshayet. Remains of huge buildings were found here which were built using stones and mud. Several artifacts that belong to a period stretching from the pre-Islamic time to the 11th Century Hijiri/(6th-17th century CE) were found. The old pilgrimage road linking Yemen was passing through this village. Garash was a famous site for leather and weapon industry. Use of manganese in manufacturing armor is detected. Garash village was very famous during the time of Holy Prophet as an important commercial center. The people of Garash embraced Islam in the prophet’s time, thus its inhabitants becoming the earliest group of Muslims. Abu Sifiyan was the in-charge Governor at that time.
 
Tathleeth Valley
Tathleeth valley is an important area with archeological content. Dozens of archaeological sites were found here. Some of these sites date back to Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. Several rock engravings and inscriptions were detected here and many topographic features evidence the existence of mining activity among its ancient inhabitants.
 
Shamsan Castle
Shamsan Castle is located at the base of a mountain where a number of ancient tomb-stones were found, as well as some foundations of buildings and walls that are still intact. Stones and clay was the primary construction materials of the time. Scattered on the surface of this area were stone tools with different shapes characterized by perfection, and the precision dating back to 3rd Millennium B.C were found. Set of fractures of ceramic made of red clay were also found that date back to the 1st Millennium B.C. Shamsan Castle is a large rectangular building with an area of 90 × 50 meters with three towers and the main entrance on the west side overlooking the city. A four-meter wide door on the west wall opens to a central courtyard. The courtyard is surrounded by rooms and facilities inside the fort. Most of the walls of the castle are still intact, aged in spite of more than 3 to 4000 years.
 
Al Makhsmah Archeological Site
Al Makhsmah is located in the south of Khamis Meshayet on a road linking Al-Qara on a granite rock bed, which is mostly brown. Collection of stone tools and broken pottery, in addition to foundations of old buildings constructed out of broken stones of various shapes and sizes were discovered. The history of Makhsmsah covers 2nd and 3rd millennium B.C.
 
Al-Hayyan Village complex
This site is famous for a number of rock paintings on the surface of huge boulders. Ancient drawings of horses and riders brandishing spears in their hands, possibly the knights, representing military drawings are found. Spread around this rocks are scattered animal and human figurines made of stone. To the northeast of the site, at approximately 2 km there are other rocks with various inscriptions. Prominent of these are the ‘al-Mani rocks’, depicting a camels caravan carrying the Howdah.
 
Sarba'al Site
Sarba'al is located in Ba'al valley, 30 km northeast of Tathleeth. Remains of residential utilities and foundations of many multi-purpose buildings with square, rectangular and circular foundations were found. These dwelling were built using black rock that dominates the site. Sarba'al is rich with surface elements consisting of broken pottery made of red and brown clay. There are some small trappings and decorations that are painted green and blue. It is believed that the artifacts to belong to the Abbasid period.

A'ia Valley
A'ia Valley is in the Bisha region of Assir Province. This is a rich archaeological site in the form of several villages scattered on the banks of the valley, such as Duhla, Rahuwa, Aljuhor, Al-Ma'allah and Madfat, several small forts, mosques and cemeteries are found here. All these structures were built using stones and timber of Seder and trunks of palm, coated with layers of mud mixed with hay spread over several layers. The structures were carefully designed with a masterly construction technique. The site includes Mishraf, Humaidan and Ibn Jubaih Fortress.
 
Al-Jahawa Archaeological City
It is located on the banks of Al-Namas valley to its south. Hamdani has mentioned in his book, “Arabian Peninsula in 320H (932G)” that Al-Jahawa was the largest city of Jarash. It was the base of a small Sultanate. The foundations of the old walls and fortification built with large stones remain to date. Its old market place which was known as Al-Ras has now vanished and nothing is left of it due to the urban and agricultural expansion. One important remain, is an old furnace used for melting slag and iron, suggesting that the dwellers of the city exercised mining of iron ore as a profession.
 
Badiya Bani Umru
Badiya Bani Umru is located to the east of Halba in Al-Namass Province. It is one of the areas rich in ancient rock-reliefs dating back to pre-Islamic periods. There are several carvings of different animals, battle scenes, hunting and combat scenes are engraved on rock surfaces, in addition to Kofi inscriptions dating back to three historical periods of Islamic importance 125/127/155(H) corresponding to 742/745/ 771(G).
 
Marid Palace
Marid is a giant palace located in Al-Assyah (Ein Bin Fehaid). It is a square building with an area of 45m x 45m. The thickness of its outer-wall is about 1.2 meters. Almost all the palace is painted white. From the constructions style, it clearly belongs to the early Abbasid period.
 
Al Dr’iyah
It was an old town before the emergence of Islam and during the Islamic period it rose to fame as the region's one of the largest Hajj station on the route extending from Basra to Makkah.
 
Zubaidah Archeological Site
It was an important pilgrim route through the Qassim region. This was the old Hajj route used by the pilgrims coming from Kufa in Iraq to Makkah. One of its important archaeological features in the western part of the structure is the Al Jufinah lake, which is still in use.
 
Dhariya Towers at Shiqa
It is a control tower of a great height belonging to the pre-Islamic times. This tower was mentioned in the poetry of the poet Amr Al-Qais.
 
Shanana Tower
Shanana tower is a multi-storied building, principally built with mud abodes. The diameter at its base is 6 meter gradually tapering to one meter and a half at the top. The total height of the tower is 30 meters. This tower is said to have been built in 1111H/1699 AD.
 
Al-Entriyatt at Qusaiba
The site is located west of Qusaiba (Guloah) and about 94 kilometers to the north of Buraidah. This is known as the Castle of Antar Bin Shiddad Al-Absi. It was built in the shape of a palace with towers of stones and gravel.
 
Alkhalaf and Alkhalaif
Located in the Quloah municipality are two sites of neighboring cities, separated by a distance of 2 km apart. There are remains of two different neighborhoods as well as the remains of Alkhalaf mosque, which was built on an area of 324 square meters with huge side walls, thick and robust. The Alkhalaf mosque is vanished without a trace. There are some ancient tombs, as well as 27 Shahdia inscription covering a period from first half of the third century until the second half of the fifth century AH (860 – 1050 AD). On all these tombs Kofic engravings are found.
 
A'asham
This archeological site is located on the ancient pilgrimage route in the south of the Arab Peninsula that connects Yemen and Makkah running along the Red Sea coast. Before Islam this place was famous for metal industry and it was situated on an area of 1500m x 600m from east to west. The houses in this area were built of volcanic stones; hence most of these are in black color. The construction style is simple, in a way as stone blocks are arranged on upon the other without the use of mortar. About 100 houses are identified. These houses have a single room to many rooms. There is a cemetery in the east of the village in an area around 150m × 150m. The graves are richly decorated with Kofic inscriptions (26 are identified). At A'asham are found a large number broken pottery belonging to the periods from pre-Islamic centuries to the early fifth century AH (11th century AD).
 
Al-A'ablah Site
A dedicated archaeological mission at the Antiquities & Museums Agency in the Ministry of Education has attaches priority on the research and study on this site as it depicted a model of old mining industrial town. Existence of several mining companies and mines were detected on this site. Additionally its role in agricultural activity and trading is very much visible in the region.
 
Zi Ein
This is an ancient village located to the southwest of Al Baha, to the right of road linking Majhwa, about 20 kilometers from the city. The village is seated on the summit of a hill includes some 31 old houses and a small ancient mosque. The houses are of two to seven storey tall. Stones were primarily used as building material for construction of these houses with roofs supported by Juniper wood being brought from the adjacent forests. The balconies of the houses were decorated with quartz stones cut into solid triangles. The houses themselves are decorated with triangular stones. There are some of defensive fortifications to protect the village from marauders and may be for surveillance purpose. Zi Ein is famous for cultivation of various fruits, especially the bananas, which are grown to the present. This village is estimated to be about 400 years old.
 
Al-Eikhdood (The Ditch) Site
Al-Eikhdood Has been mentioned in the Quran in Surat Al Burooj: In the name of Allah the most Beneficent and most Merciful – Cursed were the people of Al Ekhdood (the Ditch) of fire fed with fuel, when they sat by it and watched what they did to the believers – Allah the Mighty is True. (Story of the boy and the King), narrating an incidence of the local King and his people when they tormented the Christian believers and the boy to turn to apostate (non believers).
 
Hima Well
Here there are many sites that are historically significant with abundant archaeological elements of different historical periods. These sites date back to historical Al Moostri times (40 – 80 thousand years ago). There are some sites containing elements of Old Stone and the Neolithic periods. In the Jabl Al Kawkab at the site, we found piles of graves dating back to the historical period known as the ‘Civilization of the southern Arabian Peninsula” . Survey missions have provided us with abundant archaeological information on these sites that has been documented through their rock inscriptions that range from the seventh millennium BC to the first millennium BC. Through these artifacts we get important information about the human life in that period. For instance, we know now that the population of the region at that time had domesticated dogs (greyhounds), they fished, they had camels, cows, goats, ostriches, sheep, and they were using weapons including spears, sticks and bows and arrows with double tips.
 
Old trade rout of Drab Al Bakhoor
The old trade routes of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have drawn a great deal of attention of researchers in the history of the Arabian Peninsula. One such route is known as the Old trade route (or the Incense route) which has gained wide fame resting on the march of army of Abraha, the Ethiopian King on his ill-fated campaign to Makkah. The route is also called the Asaad Kamil, named after one of the Tababah Kings (Abu Asaad 385-420 BC)..
Survey campaigns have resulted in the documentation many parts of the road. The total length of the distance that has been documented scientifically during the first phase is 44 km toward Makkah. 23 stations on the route have been recorded and in the second stage a distance of 160 km with 30 locations on the route are documented. Several stone structures and small mosques and wells are found and some of these are in use until now by the desert nomads, in addition to a number of inscriptions and rock drawings and writings on rocks. Survey missions have found some parts of paved the road well preserved to the present, and parts of the road have been identified by stones. Arguably the history of the birth of this road was the beginning of the first millennium BC, a historical period which saw the Queen of Sheba's visit to King Solomon - peace be upon him.
 
Jibbah Basin /Sandy Desert
Jibbah Basin is located 60 to 80 kilometers inside the Al-Nifud desert, an area of vast sandy desert stretching some 300 km across from east to west. Rock carvings and engraving abound this region. Near Hail that lies in its stretch, a number of mountains have exhibited abundant Thamudic inscriptions and stone art dating back to third or fourth century BC. Archeological surveys have revealed the existence of an old Islamic city in the Jibbah Basin.
 
Feid / Ruins of Khrash Palace
Feid is situated 120 kilometers to the south-east of Hail so called the Khrash Palace ruins, believed to be the site of an ancient city dating back to pre-Islamic times. The old Hajj route, Darb Zubaidah passes through this village where there are remains of some ponds and architectural installations. Fied boasts of thee famous springs which are, Ein Alnakheel, Ein Alhar and Ein Al bardah, (the hot and cold wells), all belonging to the various Islamic periods.
 
Mount Al Meliheyah
It is located 40 kilometers east of Hail. On the facades of the rocks of this hill are interesting inscriptions and engravings that include drawings of cows, camels, ostriches and lions, which indicate the abundance of these animals in ancient times.
 
Al-Sufun Palace
It is located in a small valley on the foot of Jabl Aja, northwest of Hail. The antiquities in this are the Old water canals and basins that were constructed for draining water of the valley and also for watering the farms. From the inscriptions on the Jabl Aja, it is inferred that the site dates back to 2500 BC.
 
Hatim Al-Tae's Palace
There is a village called ‘Turan’ at the foot of Jabl Aja. It is known that the ancient tribe Tae inhabited that region from pre-Islamic era. Dedicating this Palace to Hatim Al-Tae is uncertain, because the palace has witnessed the successive periods, as the architectural remains show.
 
Al-Rajajeel Archeological Site
Al-Rajajeel ("the Men" in Saudi dialect) are stone pillars, located 22 km (14m) south of Skaka. The pillars bear unknown inscriptions which are believed to date from the 4th century B.C. There are 50 separate sets stone pillars and all are approximately three meters tall. These pillars are randomly located on a series of low terraces (300 – 500m) overseeing the wide valley, which is intersected by a road leading to Nufud region. Each group of these columns, between two to ten, stands perpendicular to the plateau, and believed to be the motifs for funeral ritual.
 
Jabal Barnes
It is located in the west of Za'abal Palace. This site has stone engravings depicting dance scenes and some writings mingled with Arabic inscriptions.
 
Beer Sesir
It is a well and a famous site in the vicinity of the Za’abal palace. The well is carved out on a rock platform. At the bottom of the well there is a rectangular hole followed by a very large pit below. The purpose of this structure is not known.
 
Al-Garah Site
Al Garah site is located 5 km south of Sakaka. It contains many Thomedic inscriptions and drawings of strange animal shapes.
 
Al-Sarhan Valley
In the past it was known as Al-Sir Valley. Al-Sarhan Valley was a crossing corridor for caravans. Commercial name of this place was Al-Ma'arifah and Al-Mausilla (link-point) connecting between Tema, Dadan, Tadmar and Basra as well as commercial caravans coming from Al-Jarha on the coast of the Arab Gulf from Babylon heading to Gaza on the Mediterranean coast. Based on the available resources, it is believed that the region had settlements from different periods of history and it was one of the Stone Age settlements in the Arabian Peninsula. Alongside the remains of walls at Badia some stone tools belonging to the Neolithic period were found. Near these sites, drawings and inscription dating back t thousands of years are found.
 
Al-Sharrah
It is mentioned in the book ‘Arab Lands’ by author Al-A'amri, that Al-Sharrah, Afeyah and Abaidh belonged to Balgin land who had permitted their women to grow and eat and where men outnumbered women. Al-Sharrah is a village located at 35 -37 longitude and 27 -31 latitude. An English traveler, Mrs. Blunt had visited this site in late September 1879. She says that Al-Sharrah village is a twin of Kaf village located to its east. She also suggested that Al-Sharrah is smaller than Kaf but it is famous for its old buildings fenced inside a mini castle styled in the Haroon Al-Rashid designs. In Al-Sharrah there are many antiquities found inside the village like the Raslaniya Palace, Um Qaseer, Al-Asrab, water channels and old cemeteries. In addition to the remains of buildings on Mount Radwa, architectural elements, old coins and some antique jewellery.
 
Tema
It is located to the south-east of the city of Tabuk about 264 km, one of the old oases which include many antiquities dating back to the pre-Islamic period. Several inscriptions and rare artifacts are found dating back to the eighth century B.C. Other antiquities dating back to the early Islamic period is the most important artifacts.
 
Great Wall of Tema
Great Wall of Tema surrounds the old city from the west, south and east except the north, where it is enclosed by salt lake called Al-Sabkha. The wall extends for more ten kilometers and it is built of stones and mud and mud bricks. The wall is more than 10 meters tall in some parts and less so in some parts, with a width one to two meters. This tower dates back to the sixth century BC.
 
Al Hamra Palace
Located on the north side of Taima and is one of the most important sites that have been fully explored. This structure is built of stone and it is divided into three sections, one of which was used for worship, and the other two to serve the residents of the palace. The building dates back to the mid-sixth century BC.
 
Al-Radm Palace
Al-Radm Palace is approximately square shape, in the center of which there is a well. Its walls are built of polished stone pillars and the structure dates back to the first millennium BC.
 
Beer Hadaj
It is the largest well in the Arabian Peninsula and even the best known. It is believed that the history of digging and building the walls of this well go back to the sixth century BC. It is said that this well had been buried when Taima was hit by disastrous flood, and remained buried for several centuries until a man named Suleiman Bin Ghanim came to Taima and dug the well back..

Al-Ablaq Palace
The site of this palace is still buried under rubble except for some of its parts which shows that the upper walls of the palace were built of stones.
 
Tel Al-Hadiqah
Tel Hadiqah is a garden hill, located in a modern residential city. Its history belongs to the second century B.C. Some of its parts were excavated and a large quantity of pottery was found which many refer it to the density of population and prosperity of the industry of this important article.
 
Al Madafen (Cemeteries)
It is known as Al Senyaie Site (Industrial Site). This is a modern term relative to the presence of an industrial area now. There are a large number of tombs that have been excavated. Some material and tools related to burial rituals were found. Many of the findings indicate they were used for burial during the first millennium BC.
 
Qariyah Site
It is located 90 km north-west of the Tabuk city. Qariyah is a residential and agricultural dating back to the first millennium B.C. Many stone tools were discovered besides kilns for manufacture pottery. The walls extend from the valleys and rise to the top of the mountain. There are temples and water tables that are similar to the irrigation system but well linked to agricultural and industrial sections.
 
Rawafah Temple
Rawafah Temple is a temple is located 115 km to the south-west of Tabuk and in the heart of Hisma district. It is an old Roman temple (Nabutian) and dates back to second century B.C. This temple is similar to the Temple of Romans in Wadi Rum in Jordan and both are located on the old western trade route.
 
Al-Badie (Shaib's Cave)
Located to the north-west of Tabuk about 225 km, it is an ancient oasis called by Ptolemy as Eiyyenah, the graves carved in the rocks due to the age Nabati There is also the site of the ancient city of the early Islamic period known as Al-Malgatah. The scattered ruins are a clear evidence that the many nations have changed in the Oasis during the commercial and agricultural prosperity of BC for several centuries.
 
Uyenonah Oasis
It is an oasis located 20 km to the north of the city of Duba. On its coastal line is located the famous Port of the Nabateans (Loky Komy) – the white city. The remains of Loki Komy port are still visible in the Yuenona oasis. Located near the Uyenonah oasis at Al-Kuffar caves on the Red Sea coast, in a place called Bakheriba, many Islamic antiquities were discovered.
 
Deeseh Site
Located to the north-west of the city of Tabuk, and spread over the rock interfaces Nabataea and Islamic inscriptions as well as the remains of the foundations of the walls of residential buildings.
 
Hisma Area (Jabl Al Louz)
Hisma Area is located to the west of the city of Tabuk. The most important antiquities are the remains of Jabl Al Louz, one of the highest mountain ranges in the area of Hisma area. Jabl Al Louz is an extension of the Sarawat mountains and from west of Tabuk Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jabl Al Louz gets its name due to the presence of almond trees that are grown here. Spread in the region are the rock drawings which dating to about 10,000 years BC, in addition to the ancient inscriptions and Islamic engravings. The region had flourished commercially because of its geographical location.
 
Al Ozlam Castle
Located 45 km to the south of Dhuba town. It was one of the main Hajj stations for the Egyptian pilgrims during Ottoman and Mamluk periods. The castle was built by Sultan Mohammed Bin Qalawun and then rebuilt in the time of Mamluk Sultan Qansuwah Al-Gori in 916H. The castle is consisting of a courtyard and rectangular rooms and semi-circular rooms and a large Majlis for gathering or the Office of the Chief.
 
Al-Muwaileh Castle
It is located 45 km in the north of Dhuba town. Near the castle there are two wells dating back to Mamluk period. The castle built in 968H/1560 AD, was the main Hajj station on the highway for the Egyptian pilgrims and it was the largest station on the road. It was built by Sultan Sulaiman the Magnificent.
 
Al-Wajeh Castle
This castle was built in 1115H/1700 AD and it is consisting of a rectangular control tower and an entrance to a small courtyard overlooking the rooms and facilities.

Al Aerib Castle
Located in the Wadi Alzerib 20 km east of Wajeh, it was built as a rest house for the pilgrim caravans in the reign of Sultan Ahmed in the year 1026 AH. It is a rectangular in castle with four towers and an entrance is located in the western side of it. In the inside there are two halls surrounding a courtyard castle, a mosque and some residential units.

Tabuk Castle
Tabuk Castle is one of the important Hajj stations on the road from Levant to Al Madina and the road has several castles and stations starting from the Saudi-Jordanian border ending at Al Madina to accommodate pilgrims. The building of this castle dates back to 976 Hijri/1559 AD and then renovated in 1413 Hijri corresponding t0 1992 by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, Ministry of Education. The castle consists of two floors the ground floor contains an open courtyard, a number of rooms, a mosque and a well and there are stairs leading to the first floor, which contains again a mosque and some rooms. From here, stairs go up leading to the towers that were used as watch-towers for control. The castle is one of the most important monuments in the region.
 
Al-Moazam Castle
Al Moazam castle or the Holy Castle is located 65 km to the south-east of Tabuk. The castle was established in the year 1031H/1622 AD in the reign of Ottoman Sultan, Sultan Osman II. In front of the castle there are four inscriptions detailing the construction constituent of the castle.
 
Al-Hawura
It is located 10 km north of Amlaj. In the first Hejiri centuries it was a prime port for the interior of Arabia. It is locate behind the villages of Al-Qura Valley and the Khaiber. Archeological remains extend on a large area n the Al Hawra site. A portion of a house built of stone was excavated – that dates back to the 4th or the beginning of the 5th century Hijra (10-11 century CE).
 
Bade Archaeological Site
Located to the east of the Al-Wajeh province at a distance of 72 km is a small village which is an archaeological site. Spread on the surface are the fractures of Islamic pottery and ceramic dating back to 3rd and 4th Hijiri centuries. Next t this site there is a pond and traces of irrigation canals, in addition to existence of early Kofi writings and engraved on rocks. Bade was the main station on the Egyptian pilgrimage route.